# Philosophical Logic

The textbook for the course is Ted Sider’s *Logic for Philosophy* (OUP, 2010), and tutorials will be based on James Studd’s logic exercises and philosophy tasks, which can be found on his website:

https://jamesstudd.net/phillogic/

There are also Faculty lectures for the course, given in Hilary Term. It is essential that you attend these. Lecture slides are also on James Studd’s website.

In order to do well in this paper, it is important that you complete the philosophy tasks as well as the logic exercises. Below, I give readings for six of the topics we’ll be looking at. Many of the readings are online, and all can be obtained from the college or other libraries in Oxford, but if you are struggling to get hold of anything, email me, as I have PDF copies of *nearly* everything.

**TOPICS**

- Many-Valued Logics
- Modal Propositional Logic
- Second-Order Logic
- Quantified Modal Logic
- Two-Dimensional Modal Logic
- Counterfactuals

## TOPICS

## 1. MANY-VALUED LOGICS

**CORE READING**

Kit Fine (1975) ‘Vagueness, Truth and Logic’ in *Synthese* 30(3/4), pp. 265–300.

Tim Williamson (1994) *Vagueness* (Routledge), Ch. 4 and 5.

**FURTHER READING**

Rosanna Keefe (2008) ‘Vagueness: Supervaluationism’ in *Philosophy Compass* 3(2), pp. 315–324.

## 2. MODAL PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

**CORE READING**

Nathan Salmon (1989) ‘The Logic of What Might have Been’ in *The Philosophical Review* 98(1), pp. 3–34.

Tim Williamson (2013) *Modal Logic as Metaphysics* (OUP), §§3.1–3.3.

**FURTHER READING**

Michael Loux (1979) ‘Introduction’ to Michael Loux, ed. *The Possible and the Actual* (Cornell UP), esp. §1.

Michael Dummett (1993) ‘Could There Be Unicorns?’ in his *The Seas of Language* (OUP).

## 3. SECOND-ORDER LOGIC

**CORE READING**

W. V. O. Quine (1986) *Philosophy of Logic* (2nd ed., Harvard UP), pp. 61–70.

George Boolos (1975) ‘On Second-Order Logic’ in *Journal of Philosophy* 72, pp. 509–527.

**FURTHER READING**

Stewart Shapiro (1991) *Foundations without Foundationalism* (OUP), Chs. 4, 5 and 7.

## 4. QUANTIFIED MODAL LOGIC

**CORE READING**

Tim Williamson (1998) ‘Bare Possibilia’ in *Erkenntnis* 48, pp. 257–273.

Reina Hayaki (2006) ‘Contingent Objects and the Barcan Formula’ in *Erkenntnis* 64, pp. 75–83.

**FURTHER READING**

Tim Williamson (2013) *Modal Logic as Metaphysics* (OUP), Chs 1, 2.1-2, 3, 4.1.

Ted Sider (2009) ‘Williamson’s Many Necessary Existents’ in *Analysis* 69, pp. 250–258.

## 5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODAL LOGIC

**CORE READING**

Gareth Evans (1979) ‘Reference and Contingency’ in *The Monist* 62, pp. 161–89.

Martin Davies and Lloyd Humberstone (1980) ‘Two Notions of Necessity’ in *Philosophical Studies* 38, pp. 1–30.

**FURTHER READING**

Scott Soames (2005) *Reference and Description* (Princeton UP), Ch. 6.

David Chalmers and Brian Rabern (2014) ‘Two-Dimensional Semantics and the Nesting Problem’ in *Analysis* 74(2), pp. 210-224.

## 6. COUNTERFACTUALS

**CORE READING**

David Lewis (1973) *Counterfactuals* (Blackwell), §3.4.

Robert Stalnaker (1984) *Inquiry* (Cambridge University Press), Ch. 7.

**FURTHER READING**

Kai von Fintel (2012) ‘Subjunctive Conditionals’ in Delia Graff Fara and Gillian Russell, eds. *The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language* (Routledge).